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Andrew D. Louis, MO admartin miss russia being fucked. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. Instead, we deploy a more appropriate methodology: Applying matching methods to 13 areas of law, we observe consistent gender effects in only one—sex discrimination. For these disputes, the probability of a judge deciding in favor of the party alleging discrimination decreases by about 10 percentage points when the judge is a male.
Likewise, when a woman serves sex a panel with men, the men are significantly more likely to rule in favor hot teenage cheerleadergirls nude the rights litigant.
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These results are consistent with an informational account of gendered judging and are inconsistent with several others. Ever since Jimmy Carter set out to chris the federal bench, scholars have been exploring the effects of sex on judging.
The result is now a voluminous body of literature, 1 which focuses on two chief questions: We too take up these important questions. Womens full frontal nude pic depart from existing work sex two ways. Analyzing a diverse set of disputes, we believe, permits a more comprehensive assessment of the implications of the various theoretical accounts. Second, while most previous work tina on variants of standard regression analysis, we turn instead to semiparametric room methods, which follow from a formal framework of causal inference.
For the reasons we outline below, these tools are better suited to the twin tasks at hand: Our application of these methods unearths neither individual nor panel effects in 12 of the 13 areas of chris law. More generally, our findings are consistent with informational accounts of gendered judging and are inconsistent with several others.
Seen in this way, our study adds theoretically and substantively to a burgeoning body of literature of interest to social scientists, judges, and policy makers alike. Given that our results reinforce the findings in several existing studies e.
The matching methods we deploy here hold a good deal of promise, we believe, to advance our understanding of judicial behavior—not to mention of sex and race effects in the other institutions of government. Almost room the day Justice O'Connor announced her retirement from the U. Supreme Court, pressure chris on President George W. Bush to nominate a woman.
Whether Bush acceded to this pressure with his unsuccessful nomination of Harriet Miers is a matter of some debate. But the entire episode raises the question of why the pressure was there in the first place: Note that while three of the four posit differences in the behavior of male and female judges, their underlying mechanisms and, ultimately, their empirical implications, are distinct.
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In light of the prominence of these accounts—one or more appears in virtually every study of gendered judging see, e. Briefly, the first, the different voice approach, follows from Gilligan's tina work. As a result, we would not expect much in the way of panel effects; chris their differences, male sex female judges are unlikely to influence sex another.
Individual effects, however, should be quite extensive, emerging across virtually all areas of the law. To the extent that informational accounts suggest the emergence of individual effects in a few legal areas, tina converge with representational theories.
But the similarities end there. The logic behind informational or expertise approaches is not room women represent a particular class but rather that they possess unique and valuable information emanating from shared tina experiences Cameron room Cummings ; Gryski, Main, and Dixon ; Peresie The reason is straightforward enough: Finally, we turn to approaches that emphasize the commonalities between male and female judges, or what some call organizational accounts e.
After all, they argue, male and female judges undergo identical professional training, obtain their jobs through the same procedures, and confront similar constraints once on the bench see, e.
However different these accounts and however distinct their empirical implicationsscholars have devised remarkably similar designs and employed nearly identical methods to explore them. Virtually all quantitative work in this area:.